The United States has two separate mechanisms for concluding binding international agreements. Footnote 19 The first option is the traditional contract. The treaties follow the consultation and approval procedure under Article II of the Constitution, where a treaty, although negotiated by the executive, must nevertheless be approved by a two-thirds majority in the Senate to be ratified and binding. Footnote 20 Chart 3 shows the survival estimate and cumulative risk curves for the preferred model (5), which corresponds to a contract and an executive agreement. Digital covariates have been centered around their average. For category variables, the most common value is used. Footnote 100 At the same time, there is anecdotal evidence that makes alternative explanations plausible. Consider, for example, the negotiation process for arms reduction agreements between the United States and Russia. During the SALT II negotiations, the United States proposed an interim agreement between Congress and the Executive to ban new types of ballistic missiles and cruise missiles.
However, former Soviet Foreign Minister Andrej Gromyko rejected the proposal because of the allegedly lower status of the agreement between Congress and the executive branch. Footnote 12 Similarly, the United States and Russia agreed during negotiations on the Strategic Offensive Offensive Reduction Treaty (SORT) to reduce their active nuclear warhead arsenals to between 1,700 and 2,200 each. President Putin insisted that the agreement be coded as a formal treaty and gave up considerable bargaining power to convince President Bush, who supports an agreement between Congress and the executive branch. Footnote 13 Outside the context of nuclear disarmament, negotiators also drew attention to the treaty as a desired form of more serious engagement. For example, when former Philippine President Corazon Aquino took office, she announced her intention to replace the then existing agreements on the executive branch of Congress, which govern the status of U.S. military bases in the Philippines, with “full”-fledged treaties. Footnote 14 As explained in more detail in 11 FAM 721.2, there are two domestic law procedures by which the United States becomes parties to an international agreement. First, international agreements (regardless of your title, name or form) that come into force with respect to the United States only take place after two-thirds of the U.S. Senate has given their opinion and approval in accordance with Article II, Section 2, of Clause 2 of the Constitution. Second, international agreements, which come into force with respect to the United States on a different constitutional basis than the Council and Senate approval, are “non-treaty international agreements” and are often referred to as “executive agreements.” There are different types of executive agreements. 75 This decision is based on the rationale that the President-in-Office has the most influence on its content at the time the agreement was signed. However, the content of all results is the same when a categorical variable is used for the president under whom the agreement came into force.
Relevant regressions are included in the online schedule.